The disease is recognized by variety of arrhythmias (sinus bradycardia, paroxysmal tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, sinoatrial block, atrioventricular block). It can appear in any age but predominantly in older age. The etiology, signs and symptoms, and management has been explained in this article.


It includes fibrosis, degenerative change or ischemia of SA node that results into variegated arrhythmias as mentioned above.

Signs and symptoms

In symptomatic patients it presents with palpitations, dizziness or syncope spells owing to variety of arrhythmias.

Management In asymptomatic patient, treatment is not required whilst in symptomatic patients, permanent pacemaker may prevent symptoms but can’t improve prognosis.

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