Meningitis
It is the inflammatory condition of the meningeal membrane that envelops the brain and spinal cord. It may be due to infectious cause or non infectious cause. The causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and complications have been explained below.
Causes
• Infectious Causes
       Bacterial meningitis
       Viral meningitis
• Non-infectious Causes
       Medication, SLE, Sarcoidosis, and carcinomatosis
Types
Septic meningitis
It is also known as bacterial meningitis. Various bacteria viz. Listeria monocytogens(Neonate), Neisseria meningitis(Children >3 months), streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilia influenza(adults and elderly).
Aseptic meningitis
It is due to variety of nonbacterial pathogens, frequently viruses such as herpes simplex virus and entervirons. It can also be fungi or parasite or some bacteria. It also includes non-infectious causes of meningitis.
Signs and symptoms
• Fever
• Neck stiffness
• Headache
• Malaise
• Photophobia
• Altered state of consciousness
Diagnosis
• CSF examination
• CT scan
• Blood culture before initiation of antibiotic
Treatment
• Antibiotics
• Steroids- if cerebra edema is present.
• Vaccination
• Supportive care only- in case of aseptic meningitis
Complications
Coma, neurological deficit, cranial nerve injuries

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